Friday, 12 June 2009

King Alfred retreated to Athelney

Athelney is located between the villages of Burrowbridge and East Lyng in the Sedgemoor district of Somerset, England. The area is known as the Isle of Athelney, because it was once a very low isolated island in the 'very great swampy and impassable marshes' of the Somerset Levels. Much of the Levels are below sea level. They are now drained for agricultural use during the summer, but are regularly flooded in the winter.
Athelney is around 6 miles from North Petherton, where the Alfred Jewel (an Anglo-Saxon ornament dating from the late 9th century) was discovered in 1693.

Alfred Jewel

Isle of Athelney
The Isle of Athelney is best known for once being the fortress hiding place of King Alfred the Great, from where he went on to defeat the Danes at the Battle of Ethandun in May 878.
Archaeological excavations and written evidence indicate that at the time of Alfred the island was linked by a causeway to East Lyng, with either end protected by a semi-circular stockade and ditch. The ditch on the island is now known to date from the Iron Age. It is therefore presumed that the Isle was known by Alfred to have been an ancient fort, and that its existing defences were strengthened by him. Evidence of metalworking on the site suggests that he also used the island to equip his army.When translated from the Anglo-Saxon, the name of the isle,

Æthelinga íeg, is often thought to mean the Island of Princes; if correct this might suggest that the island had royal connections prior to Alfred.

To give thanks for his victory, Alfred founded a monastery, Athelney Abbey, on the Isle in 888, which lasted until the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII in 1539, when the value of the rubble was put at £80.
After Athelney Abbey was dissolved the monks then built the church in the neighbouring village of East Lyng.
There are no remains of the monastery above ground, but excavations were carried out as part of the 1st and 100th Time Team television archaeology programmes.
The monastery's location was marked by a small monument on top of the isle in 1801 built by Sir John Slade, 1st Baronet of the Slade Baronets, on the site of a stone vault. It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument (Somerset County No 367) and Grade II listed building.

The monument is now on private land belonging to Athelney Farm and, although visible from a layby off the A361, is not accessible to the public.


The island of Athelney is on the north side of Stanmoor, and on the north bank of the River Tone, being about 4 miles south-west of Bridgwater. It consists of two low hills divided by a shallow depression, containing 24 acres in extent, of which the eastern and slightly higher hill where was the monastery of our Blessed Saviour, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Athelwine, comprises 11½ acres. It is still often in winter-time an island to which people have to go by boats.
It was to this place that Alfred retreated in the autumn of 877, and in the spring of 878 he built here a fortress called Ethelingaeigge. (fn. 460) Asser, (fn. 461) whose account is vivid and valuable, having visited the place as chaplain to Alfred himself, describes it as a small island in the midst of an impassable morass, and says that Alfred, while he often thought of the needs of his soul, among other good deeds ordered that two monasteries should be built, of which the one for monks was at Athelney. In this monastery he collected monks from every quarter, and placed over them, as their first abbot, (fn. 462) John, an Old-Saxon priest and monk, and certain other priests and deacons from beyond the sea, of whom, finding that he had not as large a number as he wanted, he procured as many as possible from the same race in Gaul, and among them Asser tells us he had seen a young lad who was born a pagan, who had been educated in the monastery and was by no means the least in advancement of the monks there.
It has been questioned (fn. 463) whether Alfred really founded the monastery—or whether he did not enlarge a hermitage or monastery already in existence. The dedication of St. Egelwine or Athelwine, the brother of King Kenewalch, suggests a greater antiquity, and the charter which Alfred granted to the monastery suggests that he rather enlarged than founded the house.Asser, however, who is our best authority, speaks of the monastery as recently founded by Alfred. He tells us that the monks who were gathered at first under Abbot John were not all men devoted to the service of God, and some of them resisted the discipline which the abbot would impose upon them.
On one occasion (fn. 464) a priest and a deacon of Gallic birth, having laid their plans, hid at night in the chapel waiting for the abbot to come alone in the early morning for his prayers, and intending then and there to slay him before the altar and carry his dead body and lay it before a house of ill fame. When the abbot, John, appeared that night they attacked him, but his efforts to resist them and his shouting roused the brother monks, and though the men wounded their abbot, he was rescued, and his assailants were ultimately caught and imprisoned.William of Malmesbury, (fn. 465) writing in the first half of the 12th century, tells us of a church which was there built, which seems to have been erected on piles and to have had apsidal chapels attached. He says the monks there in his time were few in number and poor, but they were consoled in their poverty by their love of a quiet solitude.The early history of the abbey is very obscure. There was a cartulary in existence in the first half of the 18th century, of which a transcript (fn. 466) of the earlier portion was made by Dr. Harbin in 1735, and this is now in the Phillipps library at Cheltenham. The original however has disappeared, and it seems as if probably the second portion contained the story of the abbey rather than copies of its charters.Collinson quotes the names of one or two Saxon abbots, which seems to suggest that he had actually seen the vanished manuscript. The Harbin transcript has been published by the Somerset Record Society, and it gives us a considerable group of early charters. A charter of King Alfred granting the manor of Sutton to the monastery is given in this cartulary in which he describes the place as 'the Island of Nobles.' (fn. 467) At the time of the Conquest, we find the abbey allied, together with Muchelney, to the great monastery at Glastonbury, so that the three foundations were acting together to resist Bishop Giso, who attempted to assert his visitorial authority as bishop of the diocese over Muchelney and Athelney but was compelled to do so through the medium of the Abbot of Glastonbury.In 1160 (fn. 468) we find the abbey providing for the conduct of its legal affairs by assigning to Robert de Beauchamp their lands in Frogmore, on condition of his representing them at the county assize and going to the pleas and business of their church whenever he should be called.Soon after a considerable change took place in the position of the abbot. (fn. 469) Bishop Savaric, as we have shown in our general historical sketch, persuaded Abbot Benedict II of Athelney to give the church of Long Sutton to found a prebend in the cathedral church of Wells; the Abbot of Athelney for the time being was to be ex-officio prebend of Sutton, with the stall next to the sub-dean. (fn. 470) It was also decided that he should not be bound to reside in Wells, but must provide a vicar with four marks a year stall wages.
In 1249 the then abbot realized the loss of freedom which ensued from his holding the prebendal stall at Wells.On the morrow of St. George, 24 April, 1249, (fn. 471) he was summoned to a chapter meeting at Wells, and sent as his proctor one of the monks of his abbey.
The chapter refused to accept the proxy because the monk was not a canon, and they condemned the abbot for a breach of the customary rules and laws of the chapter, because he had also made complaint before one of the lords of assize concerning some fishery dispute the abbey had with the dean and chapter about their estate at North Curry, without first making application to the chapter itself.
There are two other entries in the chapter manuscripts which are not easy of explanation, as they involved loss of estate to the abbey itself. During the episcopate of Bishop Jocelin (fn. 472) Abbot Benedict gave him the advowson of Ilton to form a prebend in Wells. The gift could not have been popular with the convent, for we find them soon after quarrelling with John, Chancellor of Wells, who held that prebendal stall. Benedict's successor, Abbot Roger, (fn. 473) gave also to Bishop Jocelin the tithes of Pitney and Wearne in the parish of Huish to support the endowments of that prebendal church.In the 14th century we have a good deal of evidence concerning the extent to which monastic houses were burdened by royal pensioners.
In 1304 Gilbert de Ragun went to the monastery with a royal letter, bidding them receive him as a pensioner, and they appealed against this, claiming exemption because already they had two of the aged servants of the king, John de Hanele and Nicholas Freyn, living there and provided with board and lodging at the expense of the abbey.On 6 September 1325, (fn. 474) John de Blebury also arrived with a similar request from Edward II. On 17 November 1327 (fn. 475) William de Rainton, the king's yeoman, came demanding such maintenance as Philip de Redynges had received in the late king's time.On 8 September 1341, (fn. 476) Edward la Chamberleyn, clerk, came with a royal request which was based on the fact of the creation of a new abbot and the king's claim to a corrody on each such occasion.In 1342 (15 December), (fn. 477) the abbey was called upon to receive Henry de Acum, 'Spygurnel,' to house, to provide, and to maintain him by reason of his previous good conduct to the king himself, and six years after, 5 March 1348, (fn. 478) as Henry de Acum was dead, Walter de Stodley, yeoman of the king's kitchen, was to receive such maintenance as Henry de Acum was wont to receive there, and there was a complaint added that Henry de Acum did not receive, through his own modesty and humility, all that was due to him.In 1314 Bishop Drokensford's (fn. 479) register introduces us to a disciplinary case. He received a letter from John Dalderby, Bishop of Lincoln, asking him to place William de Walton, a monk of Peterborough, in Athelney Abbey, or some other Benedictine house at the cost of his own abbey. He was sent away on account of his wickedness and disobedience to his abbot. The bishop asks that he may be placed in a separate cell and suggests fetters for his better keeping.
On 13 June 1319, Bishop Drokensford wrote to the Bishop of Lincoln to say that Walton had twice escaped from his fetters, and that as he caused a great scandal to Athelney, he must go back to his own abbey.In 1321 (fn. 480) Bishop Drokensford issued a pastoral letter to his officials, the archdeacons, the rural deans and the rectors in the diocese, concerning the ruinous state of the conventual church of Athelney. There were no funds, he said, to repair it, and he begged them to allow the monks to plead their cause in the churches on holy days after the Gospel, and he would assure contributors vere contritos of 30 days' indulgence ab injunctis penitentiis.On 22 October 1322 (fn. 481) the bishop appointed Roger de Stalbridge, the rector of Aller, and two monks as a commission to visit and inspect and report on all the buildings belonging to Athelney Abbey.
In 1349 the abbey seems to have been devastated by the plague. On 15 September Abbot Richard de Gothurst fell a victim; (fn. 482) on 23 September John Stoure was appointed but died on 22 October on his way to the king, and Robert de Hache (fn. 483) succeeded him.In January 1401 (fn. 484) there is a strange entry of a licence to Robert Wynchestre, a monk of Athelney, to whom Pope Boniface IX grants for life a room formerly assigned to him by the abbot and still in his possession, and the right to dispose, without requiring licence of the abbot and convent or others, of the goods acquired in the monastery from his offices or salary, or acquired without the same. This recognition of private property seems to be a direct annulling of the Benedictine rule.In 1462 (fn. 485) Abbot Robert Hill was granted a licence to have divine service celebrated in his oratory; this suggests that some sort of rebuilding of the church was taking place at that time.
On 17 August 1499 (fn. 486) the Feast of the Dedication was changed from 20 December to 30 August, and it is probable that this coincides with some extensive repairs, if not the entire rebuilding of the conventual church, the new dedication day being the day when the church was once more capable of being used for public worship. The buildings, however, do not seem to have been completely restored, for in 1503 (fn. 487) Bishop King issued a commission to inquire into their state.In the Valor of Henry VIII the house is said to be in debt to the king to the extent of £33 6s. 8d. which was possibly some outstanding portion of the fine of 100 marks levied on Abbot John George (fn. 488) and the convent in 1498 because of the assistance he gave to the insurgents under Perkin Warbeck in 1497.
On 17 September 1534 (fn. 489) the convent subscribed the Act of Supremacy and the Succession Act. The deed was signed by Robert Hamblyn, the newly elected abbot, Richard Welles, the prior, and eleven other monks.On 4 November 1535 (fn. 490) Robert Hamblyn, the abbot, wrote to Cromwell to inform him of the visit of Dr. Tregonwell and to express his joy that the house had been found ' yn metely good order.' The visitor had however enjoined him to remain in the monastery, and Hamblyn desired from Cromwell permission to go abroad on the necessary business of the abbey, and to take a chaplain with him.On 10 April 1536 (fn. 491) he wrote again to Cromwell, lamenting the debts of the house, and requesting Cromwell to devise some means that every man may the sooner be paid. 'Yff Y cowlde have a frynd that wolde lene me iiii. or v hundret poundes without ony prophete or lucoure, Y wolde gladly bynde me and my howse for the repayment of a hundret poundes yerely untyll the full some be payde.' To this letter he adds a schedule or book of the debts. He owed the Abbot of Dunkeswell £80, and the Abbot of Tavistock £40, and it is evident that he had borrowed recklessly when he became abbot. The Prior of Taunton and the Prior of St. John's Bridgwater had also lent money.
Various sums also are due to Ilton, North Curry, and Thurloxton Churches, and the prebendal vicar at Wells was in arrear of his stipend for two years. The sum total of debts is reckoned at £869 12s. 7d.On 2 November 1538 (fn. 492) John Dycensen, rector of Holford, went to Athelney apparently to sound the abbot about resignation. He wrote afterwards to Cromwell, giving a report of the abbot's words. To him and to the convent he had held out hope that neither religion nor the poor would suffer by the surrender of the house, for the Lord Chancellor Audley would probably settle down there. The abbot held out however for something more than a bribe of 100 marks, though the monks 'ware all glade to be advysed by my Lorde and to yelde thare howse and landes ynto ye kynges handes.'On 20 February 1539 (fn. 493) John Tregonwell, William Petre, and John Smyth, the royal commissioners, wrote to Cromwell and told him that with as much expedition as possible they had taken the surrender of the abbey.
It had indeed been surrendered on 8 February, (fn. 494) and the deed was signed by Robert Hamblyn, the abbot, Richard Wells, the prior, John Athelwyne, Henry Ambros, Robert Edgar, John Laurens, and Thomas Genynges. The abbot was awarded a pension of £50 a year, and on 24 February the prebend of Sutton was confirmed to him by Letters Patent. In Cardinal Pole's pension List of 1556, (fn. 495) pensions were still paid to Robert Hamblyn, Robert Edgar, Henry Poynings, and Thomas Genynges.After the surrender (fn. 496) the materials of the buildings were valued at £80. The site of the abbey had been leased to Lord Audley, but on 17 August 1544 (fn. 497) it was sold to John Clayton, gentleman, for £182 15s. and in April (fn. 498) of the following year he obtained a licence to sell it to John Tynbere.
The charter of Alfred of the manor of Sutton (fn. 499) exists with a careful statement of the boundaries of the manor. In 1007 King Ethelred (fn. 500) granted Ham to the small monastery (monasteriolum) of Athelney and to Alfric, the abbot. A charter of King Cnut, (fn. 501) witnessed by Earls Leofric and Godwin and Stigand, the priest, grants the manor of Sevenhampton (Seavington) to Athelney, and belongs to the period 1020–5.An abstract of the Domesday Survey is entered in the cartulary, describing the possessions as in Long Sutton, Ilton, Sevenhampton, Hamp, Lyng and Montacute, and records the encroachment of the Count of Mortain in Ashill, of Roger de Curcelle in Sutton, and of Ralph de Limesey in Bossington. The manor of Purse Caundle (fn. 502) in Dorset came to them just before the Survey by an exchange with the Count of Mortain. The abbey had previously received the manor of 'Biscopestone' on which the earl desired to build his castle of Montacute, (fn. 503) and he exchanged his manor of Purse Caundle for this manor.
In 1267 Henry III (fn. 504) granted the abbey a weekly market on Mondays in their manor of Lyng, and a yearly fair on the eve, day and morrow of St. James the Apostle, in their manor of Sutton.Roger de Mandeville (fn. 505) had given 'Andresia,' with fishery rights on the Parrett to the abbey and convent of Athelney, at the request of Herduin, the venerable hermit, and these rights being somewhat indefinite were constantly causing quarrels between the abbey and the dean and chapter of Wells who held the adjacent manor of North Curry.
In the Taxatio of 1291 the abbey is recorded as enjoying pensions in Bawdrip and Selworthy churches, and in possession of the manors of Sutton Abbots, Hurcot, and lands in North Curry, Combe Florey, and 'Hyda,' Hamp, Lyng, 'Hoggestle,' Clavelshay in North Petherton and Bossington.On the election of Robert de Hacche, (fn. 506) a monk of Athelney, to be prior in 1349, the property consisted of Sutton, Lyng, Ilton and Hurcot in the county of Somerset, and Purse Caundle in the county of Dorset. These are returned as worth £25 6s. 5d. In the Valor (fn. 507) of Henry VIII, 1535, the endowments of the house are returned as worth £209 a year.d shews the abbot standing and holding his staff and a book.
From: 'Houses of Benedictine monks: The abbey of Athelney', A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 2 (1911), pp. 99-103. URL: Date accessed: 12 June 2009.

Alfred Burning the Cakes by Sir David Wilkie

It was here, in Athelney, that the story of Alfred and the Cakes originated.
Alfred, reduced to penury, took refuge in the home of a poor peasant family. The wife of the house resolved that her guest should make himself useful, and ordered him to keep an eye on some cakes she was baking.
But Alfred, deep in thought about the situation he and his realm found themselves in, let the cakes burn.
The returning wife berated him for failing in his duty - not realising that she was talking to the future saviour of the English people.

Winchester: Capital City of Alfred

This magnificent bronze Statue, by Hamo Thornycroft, was commissioned by Alderman Bowker and the City Corporation to mark the millennium of Aelfred’s death. It was erected in 1901. It is 2.5 times life size, 15 feet (4.57 m) high, and weighs 5 tons. The base, in two parts, is of Cornish Granite, and the whole stands 40 ft high. The right hand grasps a cross-hilted sword, the symbol of Christianity which was to combat the power of heathenism. The left foot strides forward in a rather Pharonic gesture of Kingship and the subjugation of ones enemies. A Saxon helmet crowns the head, and the left hand rests lightly upon a Saxon circular shield. The cloak, thrown back over the right shouder, shelters the King and encourages the viewer to walk around the statue to view it face on. The granite pedestal bears just one word - AELFRED.

Born at Wantage, in Berkshire, Aelfred was the fifth child of Ethelwulf, King of Wessex and Queen Osburgh. His early life was spent mostly in the court of his parents, and he was much influenced by them in matters of learning and religion. Ethelwulf, before acceding to the throne of Wessex, was educated at the Old Minster in Winchester, by Bishop Swithun. It is known that Aelfred made at least two pilgrimages to Rome, one at the age of four, and one in the company of his Father, two years after the death of Queen Osburgh, his mother. Having left two of Aelfreds eldest brothers to rule over Wessex and Kent, Ethelwulfe returned to a divided Kingdom. Kent and the South East were relinquished to him by Ethelbert, but Ethelbald refused to surrender Wessex. Ethelwulf died almost a year later.Ethelbald died in 860 and was succeeded by Ethelbert until 865, when he too died and the throne passed to Ethelred I.

In 868 Aelfred married Ealhswith, the granddaughter of the King of Mercia. Aelfred was later to grant her an estate in Winchester, upon which the Nunnaminster was built.In 870 the Danes attacked Wessex, and over wintered at Reading. Early in 871 King Ethelred and Aelfred defeated the Danes at the Battle of Ashdown, though Ethelred later died of wounds received in the battle. Now King of Wessex, Aelfred was forced to negotiate a sort of peace with the Danes, literally paying them to leave his Kingdom alone (Danegelt). Aelfred used the time this bought to strengthen his Kingdom and to also develop the beginnings of a Naval fleet. At first using mercenaries, he later built a large fleet of ships to a design superior to that used by the Danes. In 876 the Danes reinvaded Wessex under a new leader, Guthrum, who established a base at Wareham. Aelfred was once again obliged to negotiate with the Danes, but Guthrum broke faith with their agreement and seized Exeter the following year. The city was put to siege and Guthrum requested reinforcements from the Viking fleet. Aelfred sent his small fleet of mercenary ships to intercept them, but a storm wrecked 120 ships of Guthrums fleet and he was forced to withdraw from Wessex into Mercia.

In 878 Guthrum suddenly attacked Aelfred & his household at Chippenham over Christ Mass. Aelfred fled to Athelney in the Somerset levels and lodged, with his wife and children, in the house of a swineherd. Guthrum proclaimed himself King of Wessex. Aelfred raised a small following and started attacking the Danes in a guerrilla war. News of his survival spread, and just seven weeks after Guthrum's surprise attack Aelfred confronted him at Eddington, pursued the Danes to their camp and laid siege to it. Fourteen days later the Danes surrendered. Although Guthrum was Aelfreds prisoner, Aelfred and Guthrum agreed to divide England into two, along a boundary from Watling Street in London across country to Chester. Later that year Guthrum was baptised into the Christian Church, with Aelfred in attendance at a ceremony on the Isle of Aller, and Guthrum settled peacefully in East Anglia until his death ten years later.In 896, nine of Aelfreds new ships engaged and defeated six Danish ships from East Anglia that were raiding towns all along the south coast. The captured crews were later sent in chains to Winchester, where they were hanged as a warning to others. It seemed to work as the rest of Aelfreds reign was relatively peaceful, and he was able to effect many reforms He strengthened the currency by increasing the weight of the silver penny to 24 grammes, and setting strict standards for coin weight and metal quality. He also introduced the silver halfpenny, though no examples of this are thought to survive. He built a mint at Winchester, the cellars of which may be found near The City Butter Cross and St. Lawrence Church. This mint became the fourth most important mint after London, York and Lincoln. Much of the currency minted here was used to pay the Danegeld.

Butter Cross Winchester:The tower in the background is part of St, Lawrences Church.

He created a series of at least 30 burghs (Fortified Towns) throughout Wessex, so spaced that no one in the kingdom was more than about 20 miles away from these places of refuge. Examples that survive to this day are Wareham and Wallingford. In the event of invasion or attack the local populace took refuge in the nearest burgh, which was sufficiently well defended so as to withstand siege until Aelfred's army could relieve them. He reorganised the army by offering the privileges of Thaneship (Knightship) to the larger freehold landowners in return for undertaking regular military service and responsibility. Available only to those who held five or more hides of land, this privilege was conditional on serving one month in three under arms.A similar rotational pattern was applied to the recruitment system, or fyrd. Men were called to serve in the army for short periods. Not only did this provide fresh and rested soldiers, it enabled the continued production of agricultural and other produce, and so did little harm to the economy.
Aelfred introduced a series of taxes, which he administered as fairly and equitably as he was able. One particular tax became known as 'Peter's Pence', a tax of one penny on each household of which 50% went to Rome, the rest was used in the upkeep of the 'English Quarter'. This tax continued to be levied on 1st August (St. Peter's day) until the dissolution of the monasteries some 500 years later.
He built churches, restored many monasteries and convents, and founded new ones at Athelney and Shaftesbury, and the 'New Minster' in Winchester. Much larger than the 'Old Minster' but just a few steps away from it, it was to be a 'peoples church' and all citizens of Winchester had the right of free burial in it's cemetery. He also granted his wife, Ealhswith, a estate in Winchester upon which the Nunnaminster was built. He encouraged these places to become centres of learning and a light against paganism and ignorance. Aelfred brought scholars, teachers, artisans and craftsmen to Wessex from all over the country, and even further afield. Any citizen who held office was encouraged to learn to read and write, to better fulfil his duties. Those holding high office were also taught Latin.
Many books and texts were translated into Anglo Saxon, and many books were written. Perhaps the most notable was a record of important events in England since it's occupation by the English tribes, The Anglo Saxon Chronicles.As much as half of Aelfred's revenues were expended in education and the dissemination of skills and knowledge.
Aelfred also instituted a system of written Law, which set down the Precepts that were in common use throughout the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. He drew heavily on previously recorded works of Law and also incorporated many previously 'unwritten' laws. He gave a structure to the Law, it's administration, and application. One of the most noteworthy precepts of Aelfreds law was that 'no man can give a judgement that he would be unwilling to have made against himself'. All but the most serious of crimes were punishable by assessment according to the 'weirgild' or 'person-price'. All freemen were assessed, according to rank, at a price which reflected their value to society. Unfortunately, serfs, who were literally no more than slaves, were seen as 'chattels' and could be punished as their owner thought fit. From this 'weirgild' could be determined the fine to be paid as compensation to the wronged party, more or less on a sliding scale according to the severity of the hurt suffered. Even murder, with a few exceptions, would likely result in the relatives being paid the full weirgild appropriate to the victim’s status.
There was no set judiciary to administer the Law. Generally lawsuits and criminal proceedings were heard by the Bishops and Ealdormen, whilst Thanes and landowners could mediate in lesser matters. Questions of business or trade were determined by the Reeves in charge of the Royal Estates. Each rank in society held responsibility for the people in their charge, and were expected to act both as protector and guarantor, to both vouch for the accused and pay the weirgild if they were found guilty.
Aelfred is the ONLY monarch ever to have been given the appellation ‘The Great’. He was truly a remarkable man, and a Great King.

The Nunnaminster, later known as St Mary's Abbey, was one of Winchester's three great Late Saxon royal monasteries. Founded by Queen Ealhswith, Alfred the Great's wife, in 903, it became one of the foremost centres of learning and art in England. In 964, the Nunnaminster, Old Minster, and New Minster were brought into a single enclosure to ensure isolation from the growing city. As part of this reorganisation, most of the monastery was rebuilt.

The Nunnery was rebuilt again after the Norman conquest, perhaps by AD 1100, by which time it was known as St Mary's Abbey. In the sixteenth century it was one of the largest religious houses in England. There were 26 Nuns in a total establishment of 102 persons - the latter including officials, servants and children of lords and gentlemen who were there to be educated. In November 1539 the Abbey was surrendered to Henry VIII as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and most of the monastic buildings were demolished. The site was subsequently gifted to the City by Queen Mary Tudor to celebrate her marriage to Philip of Spain in the Cathedral in July 1554. The land was later divided into two, the eastern part was occupied by a fine town house and formal gardens that survive today as the Mayor of Winchester's official residence and public gardens. The western part of the site was cleared for the City's Guildhall in 1873. Between 1981-83 archaeological excavations were carried out on this site by the Archaeology Section of the Winchester Museums Service, revealing part of the Nunnaminster's fascinating history. The earliest remains uncovered during the excavations were part of Ealhswith's Monastic church Circa 903. Most of it had been destroyed by foundations of the later churches that were cut through it. The surviving walls suggest that the church was built of timber, resting on stone foundations. The nave was about 6.5m wide with a grand double-apsidal ceremonial entrance at the West Front. A tomb found in the southern apse may be that of St. Edburga. To the south of the church was a masonry base, perhaps for a monument or churchyard cross. By 960 the Nunnaminster was said to be in a 'ruinous state'. As part of Bishop Ethelwold's reforms to the City's monasteries, the boundaries of the Nunnaminster were reorganised and the church rebuilt. Ethelwold's new church was about the same size as Ealhswith's, but it was built of stone supported on broad foundations. inside the church was a feature thought to be a double tomb. To the South were the Cloisters, a feature apparently absent from the earlier monastery. Following the conquest of 1066, the Nunnaminster was rebuilt in the Norman style of architecture, although the exact date of rebuilding is unknown. It may have been in 1068 when the Nunnaminster was rededicated as the Abbey of St Mary and St Edburga, or following the siege of Winchester in 1141 when the Abbey was said to have been damaged by fire. The new church was built on a grand scale, being almost three times as wide as its Saxon predecessors. The nave was flanked by the alternating large cruciform and circular drum columns. The church formed the centre of the religious community and was open to the public. The cloister to the south was where contemplation took place and many of the nun's day to day activities occurred. The Abbess Lodgings are thought to have been located to the east of the church. The Abbey Mill Stream passed through the monastery to feed the fishponds and power the Abbey Mill. Much of the remaining area of the precinct was occupied by buildings required to serve the Abbey's needs. The Abbey Mill, with the later addition of a Classical Portico, survives to this day and is used by the City Council as offices. Abbey House is also used as the Mayor of Winchester’s official residence.

Alfred the Great granted his wife Ealhswith an estate in Winchester on which the Nunnaminster was later built. In the early 10th Century the bounds of the estate were copied into a Book of Gospels that once belonged to the Nunnaminster. The original is now in the British Library. "The bounds of the estate which Ealhswith has in Winchester run up from the ford on the westward weir of the most westerly mill eastwards to the old willow and then along the weir of the eastern mill, northwards into Cheap Street (now the Broadway): then eastwards along Cheap Street up to the boundary of the King's burgh (the city walls) of the old mill weir (the River Itchen) and there along the old mill weir until it reaches the old ash, and then southwards over the twofold fords onto Mid Street (a street lost as part of Ethelwold's reforms to the monastic boundaries): and there back west along the street and over the ford, so that the weir of the most westerly mill is reached again." To revive the monastic life in Wessex, Alfred the Great encouraged the arts. He invited scholars from the Frankish lands and brought men of learning together from all over England. The result was a blossoming of the arts in manuscript illumination, embroidery, ivory and bone working, and enamelling. The sisters of the Nunnaminster were in the forefront of this movement. They made and embroidered St Cuthbert’s Stole, which is now at Durham, and it is said that they may have worked on the Bayeaux Tapestry.

After Ethelwold's reforms the nuns followed the rules of St Benedict. Suitable women could enter the nunnery at any time during their lives. Many of the novices were young girls who, after taking their vows, lead a cloistered life under a strict regime for the rest of their lives.The regime called for an ordered day divided into eight canonical hours known as divine office. The normal day started at 2 am with Matins, followed successively by Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None (noon), Vespers and ended with Compline about 7 pm. there was also the Chapter Office, held in the Chapter House, where the business of the Abbey was discussed, followed by readings from the Rule of St Benedict. During the period between None and Vespers the nuns would fulfil other duties.
The earliest burials found belong to Ethelwold's church and are dated between 964 - 1108. There was one adult, one child and four neonatal infants. Monasteries were in the forefront of medicine of their day and young ladies of noble birth entered the Nunnaminster during their pregnancy. The high number of infant burials found probably reflects the high infant mortality rate of the time.In the medieval period a cemetery to the north of the church was reserved for the nuns. Other areas were probably put aside for general cemeteries. Thirty-seven burials were excavated in the church, the earliest dating to the 13th century. Burial in the Abbey church was highly prestigious and the graves found probably represent the highest levels of medieval society, and presumably include many of the Abbey's wealthy patrons.Males and females were present in equal numbers, but there were few infants or children. Of the adults, seven - all female - reached an age of 45 years or over. Arthritis was by far the most common disease. Despite the high status and wealth of those buried in the church, many showed signs of dietary deficiency. The high quality of the coffins indicates the social status of those buried in the church. One important 13th century grave located in the south aisle was that of a female over 45 years old in a stone coffin (The limestone coffin with a squared off top to the head end) accompanied by a wooden staff or crook of office adorned with a carved ivory top. Later the grave formed the focus of an enclosed chapel. She may have been an Abbess or a lay official of the Abbey. Food remains found during the excavations provide valuable information about the diet of this community of nuns. In the Late Saxon period the noble status of many of the nuns ensured a rich and varied diet. the remains of young lambs, piglets, goats, calves, and game animals were recovered.The introduction of the Benedictine Rule in the late 10th Century completely changed the diet. The Rule, which forbade the eating of meat, was slightly relaxed in the 14th century, but then meat could only be eaten on special occasions. The remains of sturgeon and dolphin - then considered a royal fish - suggest that despite plagues and famines in the city the Abbey was able to obtain high class fare for important visitors.

The High Cross. Also known as the City or Butter Cross. Dated as early 15th Century the monument was restored by G. G. Scott in 1865. It is described as a tall many-pinnacled cross on a stepped plinth with five octagonal steps. It was once used by countrymen to sell produce, hence the name Butter Cross. In 1770 it was sold off by the Paving Commissioners to a Mr Dummer. When he tried to remove it, the citizens of Winchester organised a small riot and preserved the monument for the City.The monument is a protected structure, being listed under the Town & Country Planning Act and is also Scheduled Ancient Monument. No. 204. Map ref: SU 481 294. There are now twelve figures on the monument. Each face of the monument has a large figure about half way up, surmounted by two smaller figures in niches. The eight figures at high level represent, The Blessed Virgin, and the Saints Bartholomew, John, Lawrence, Maurice, Peter, Swithun, and Thomas. Of the four large figures, three are relatively new. According to records at The Historic Resources Centre the figures are representations of William of Wykeham, Lawrence de Anne (An early Mayor of Winchester), Aelfred the Great, and the oldest statue (Facing the nearby building) is of St John the Evangelist. There are, however, records that also indicate that this figure may be of St Amphibalus.St Amphibalus was one of the first British Martyrs (Died 25th June AD 304) and Winchester Cathedral was under his patronage before it was dedicated to St Swithun, so there is some connection to support this hypothesis.

Winchester’s First Charter :- Granted by King Henry II, during Thomas `a Becket´s Chancellorship.

High Street Chepe Street (AS)

Principia & Vicus Magnus (R) Great Street (H)

Southgate Street Gold Street

Tower Street Snidelingestret or Snitherlingastret (AS) -

The Tailor’s Street Jewry Street* Alwarenestret (AS)

St Peter’s Street Flescmangerstret (AS) - The Butcher’s Street

St Thomas’ Street Calpe Street (AS)

Upper Brook Street Seyldwortenestret (AS) -

The Shield Maker’s Street Shulworth Street

Middle Brook Street Wunegrestret or Wongarestret (AS)

Lower Brook Street Tannerestret (AS) -

The Tanner’s Street Busket Lane Bucchestret (AS)

Colebrook Street Colebrochestret (AS)

Parchment Street Pergamene (R)

Parmentry West of the Cathedral Menstrestret (AS) -

Minster Street High St to site of North Gate Scowertenestret (AS) -

The Shoemaker’s Street High Street Northwards Bredenestret or Brudenestret (AS)

Kingsgate St Michael’s Gate

Market Street Thomas-Gate

Little Minster Street Burdon Street

Blue Ball Hill Redhouse Lane

Staple Gardens Bridney Street

Minster Street Munkestrete (AS)

Canon Street Paillard’s Close

St Cross Sperkeforde

Back Lane to Upper Brook St Wode Street

Back Lane to Lower Brook St St Ruel Street

Wharf Mill Segrim’s Mill

Prior’s Barton Mill Crepestre Mill

The Piaza Penthouse

This gateway is one of the few parts of Hyde Abbey that remain above ground. The Gateway is 15th Century built of flint with stone dressings. There is a large 4-centred carriage arch and a smaller one for pedestrians. The roof is tiled with modern rainwater goods. It has an open braced, Queenpost roof. The outer arch once had timber gates fitted. Scheduled Ancient Monument No. 97

Hyde Abbey area has a very good pub called the King Alfred and the street names are of the saxon period like(Saxon Street).

R= Roman
H= Henry Vlll
As= AngloSaxon

In 1002, Emma, daughter of Richard, Duke of Normandy, married Ethelred the Unready. As a wedding present the Duke gave her Winchester and Exeter. Ten years later he gave her the the Manor of Goudbeyete, Godbiete, or as it is now known, God Begot. Thus it is clear that, although in the City, the Manor was not part of the City. The Manor made its own laws and exacted its own taxes without reference to the Mayor of Winchester, or even the King himself.The present building dates from 1050. Emma outlived both Ethelred and her second husband Canute and, eventually, her son Edward the Confessor succeeded to the throne. Emma remained in Winchester for many years, and gathered enormous wealth. When she died, she willed the Manor of God Begot to “Christ, St.Peter and St Swithun, tax free and toll free for ever” and so it passed to the Prior and monks of St Swithun. A Court Roll of the time records the following: “ Yf eny man or woman for eny felony clayme the liberte of Godbeat and enter it in eny house or place of ye same may bide and dwell safe from eny officer. And no mynyster of ye Kynge neither of none other lords shall do eny execucion withyn ye bounds of ye seid Manor but only ye mynystours of ye seid Prior and Convent of St. Swithun”.A manor court was held by the steward of the priory, in the same way as he held courts on other manors belonging to St. Swithun’s.It’s rights and privileges continued until the Dissolution of the Monasteries when the agents of Henry VIII took over the Manor of God Begot and all its possessions. A few weeks later Henry had second thoughts, and handed the lot back.The Manor was in use long before the birth of Queen Emma, probably as a trading centre. It is believed that the name Goudbeyete, Godbiete, or God Begot, means “the goods getter.”The present building has had a turbulent history and had varied uses, most lately as a prestige retail outlet.

Royal Oak Passage
A narrow paved passageway, connecting the High Street and St. George's Street. Leftside of picture - The ‘rear’ of ancient God Begot House with its overhanging and jettied floor on one side. At the rear of God Begot House the plan of St. Peter's Church is marked out on the pavement.

Formerly known as St John´s Hospital it is probably the oldest charitable foundation in the country. It is believed to have been founded by St Brinstan, Bishop of Winchester, in AD 935 .St John´s House and Chapel stands near the ancient (Anglo Saxon) Bucchestret, Buck Street, now called Busket Lane. Part of St John´s House has a vaulted Kitchen, which may have formed part of the original Saxon Almshouse.

It is apparent from the records that the hospital has been around for a long time, although it is not clear what the original hospital was for. In 1289 it was re-founded by John Le Devenish, and has since continued to provide relief to the poor and needy.In 1400 one Mark Le Faire, Mayor of Winchester, left several houses to the charity, including the `house under the penthouse wherein Mr Hodgson died´ and `the great inn called the George´ In 1428 a descendent of John Le Devenish, John Devenish, endowed the Chapel on the North side, for the more frequent performance of divine service in the Chapel. Henry VIII confiscated some of the charities funds, but returned St John´s House to the City for the purpose of holding elections, and to retain a few of the beds.

The present building dates from 1428. However there were two Chapels on the site long before this. A Chaplain was appointed in Edward II´s reign, in 1310, to pray for the souls of English Kings and Queens. Desecrated during the reformation, and used as a School in the 18th Century, the Chapel was finally reconsecrated in 1836.

In 1558 Ralph Lamb left a farm at Amesbury, Wiltshire, five tenements in the High Street, and one corner tenement and garden in St Thomas´, to fund the construction of six houses or chambers within the hospital, and to provide various quarterly and annual sums to the inmates.

The control of the charity by the Mayor and City Corporation was confirmed by Elizabeth 1 in her Charter of the City in 1587. This continued until 1811 when a group of almshouse residents and Parish Wardens petitioned in Chancery against the purported maladministration by the City Corporation who were using funds for other purposes within the City. In 1829 the Court found in their favour and ordered that a charitable scheme be established.Over the years several smaller Charities, including St Mary Magdalen and Christes Hospital amalgamated with St Johns to form St John´s Hospital and the Allied Charities. This was changed again in 1984 to The St John´s Winchester Charity.The charity is administered by thirteen Trustees, three are nominated by the City Council, one by the Bishop of Winchester, with the remainder being co-opted.The present almshouses on the South side were built in 1833, and those on the North in 1856.A plaque on the wall in the entrance to the South courtyard records some of the main benefactors.

The river flows underneath the buildings. The round flowerbed is a well from which residents once drew their water. The charity currently has 79 units of almshouse accommodation on four sites. St John´s North and South in the Broadway, the new St Mary Magdalen Almshouses in Colebrook Street and Christes Hospital in Symonds Street. These house between 90 and 100 residents. Rent is payable on the accommodation, all of which has the benefit of a Matron or Warden and an emergency call system. A community room, adapted minibus, and Day Centre are also provided. Pastoral support is provided by the Chaplain, who takes regular services in the Chapel in the Broadway. Recent expansion of the Charities activities have resulted in the opening, in 1990, of Devenish House in Southgate Street. This is a 20 bed nursing home providing nursing and residential care for the frail and elderly. A number of beds are held open for short term convalescent and respite care. These are sometimes available for needy elderly persons from the wider community.
In 1996 the charity opened Moorside in North Walls. This is a 26 bed nursing home which provides nursing and residential care for the elderly mentally infirm, particularly those with dementia. Access to the beds is similar to Devenish House. Three of the beds are available for respite care. A day centre operates Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays to support those caring at home for a relative with dementia.

No. 1. The Old Chesil Rectory is dated 1459, but is probably early 16th Century. (Cheese House). It has 2 storeys and 2 gables with bargeboards to the road front. The building is timber-framed with plaster infilling. The upper part oversails the brick ground floor.

The roof is tiled and the projecting porch has a carved head. This was the site of the first Sunday School in Winchester. The building is now owned by the Local Authority, and is currently used as a Restaurant. Map reference SU 486 292.Chesil Street is a derivative of Cheesehill Street, which in turn comes from the Anglo-Saxon ceosel, meaning ‘gravel’. The appearance of the building is somewhat marred by the set of traffic lights which, although not attached to the building, are so placed as to dramatically detract from it’s visual amenity value.

This Cathedral Church, so named because it houses the throne (or ‘cathedra’) of the Bishop of Winchester, has its origins in the seventh century, when a Christian Church was first built on the site. Since then it has played a fundamental part in the life of this ancient city, and a role in our nations history.
Begun in 1079 in the Romanesque style, this Cathedral is at the heart of Alfred's Wessex and a diocese which once stretched from London's Thames to the Channel Islands. Its bishops were men of enormous wealth and power, none more so than William of Wykeham, twice Chancellor of England, Founder of Winchester College and New College Oxford. The chantry chapels and memorials of these great prelates are a feature of the Cathedral. These influential bishops also developed, re-fashioned and adorned this great Cathedral. There pilgrims sought the shrine of local saints, notably a former bishop, Saint Swithun, whose festival (15 July) was said to set the pattern for the weather for the next forty days.
The Cathedral was also the church of the community of Benedictine monks from its earliest days. Elements of the monastic buildings may still be traced through the Cathedral Close. Central to the life of the monks was the opus dei (the Work of God), the regular offering of prayer which they sang in the quire. The discipline of praying regularly for the world is continued today, most notably in the said morning office and the daily singing of Evensong by the Cathedral choir. Evensong still takes place in the choir of the Cathedral, the choir stalls with their magnificent gabled canopies, elaborately carved with flowers and plants, owls and monkeys, dragons, knights and green men

The following is the list of (Catholic) Bishops of Winchester with the dates of accession. (After 909 the chronology is certain) d.b = Died before, d. = Died BISHOP DATES
St Birninus 634
St Agilbert c 650
Wini (Wine) 662 - 63
Hlothere (Leutherius, Leuthere) 670 - 76
St. Haeddi (Haedda) 676 - 705 Diocese of Wessex split - Winchester & Sherborne 705
Daniel 705 - 44
Hunfrith 744 - 54
Cyneheard d.b 778
Aethelheard d.b 778
Ecgbeald (Ecbald) d. 781 - 85
Dudd d. 781 - 85
Cynebeorht (Cyneberht) d. 801 - 03
Eahlmund (Ealhmund) d. 805 - 14
Wigthegn (Wigferth or Wigmund) d. 833
Herefrith d. 833
Eadmund (uncertain)
Eadhun d. 838
Helmstan 838 (?)
St. Swithin (Swithhun) 852 - 62
Ealhfrith (Ealhferth) d. 871 - 77
Tunbeorht (Tunberht) d. 877 - 79
Denewulf 879 - 909 Diocese of Ramsbury & Sonning split from Winch c 909
St. Frithustan (Frithestan) 909
St. Beornstan (Byrnstan, Birstan) 931
Aelfheah I, (St Alphege the Bald) 934
Aelfsige I 951
Beorhthelm (Byrhthelm) 960
St. Aethelweald I (Aethelwold) 963
St. Aelfheah II (St Alphege) 984
Ceonwulf (Cenwulf) 1006
Aethelweald II (Aethelwold) 1006
Aelfsige II 1012 or 14
Aelfwine 1032
Stigand 1047
Aelfsige III (doubtful)
Walkelin 1070
William de Giffard 1100
Henry de Blois 1129
(Vacancy) 1171
Richard Toclive 1174
Godfrey de Lucy 1189
Peter de la Roche 1204
(Vacancy) 1238
William de Raleigh 1244
Aymer de Valence 1250
(Vacancy) 1261
John of Exeter 1265
Nicholas of Ely 1268
(Vacancy) 1280
John de Pontissara 1282
Henry Woodlock 1305
John Sandale 1316
Reginald Asser 1320
John Stratford 1323
Adam Orleton 1333
William Edingdon 1346
William of Wykeham 1367
Henry of Beaufort 1405
William of Wayneflete 1447
Peter Courtenay 1486
Thomas Langton 1493
Richard Fox 1500
Thomas Wolsey 1529
Stephen Gardiner 1531
John Ponet 1551
Stephen Gardiner 1553
John White 1556 - 60 =+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=The following is a list of the Protestant Bishops, with their dates of accession.
Robert Horne 1560
John Watson 1580
Thomas Cooper 1584
William Wickham 1594
William Day 1595
Thomas Bilson 1597
James Montague 1616
Lancelot Andrewes 1618
Richard Neile 1627
Walter Curle 1632
Brian Duppa 1660
George Morley 1662
Peter Mews 1684
Sir Jonathan Trelawney 1707
Charles Trimnell 1721
Richard Willis 1723
Benjamin Hoadley 1734
John Thomas 1761
Brownlow North 1781
George Pretyman-Tomline 1820
Charles Richard Sumner 1827
Samuel Wilberforce 1869
Edward Harold Browne 1873
Antony Wilson Thorold 1891
Randall Thomas Davidson 1895
Herbert Edward Ryle 1903
Edward Stuart Talbot 1911
Frank Theodore Woos 1923
Cyril Foster Garbett 1932
Mervyn George Haigh 1942
Alwyn Terrell Petre Williams 1952
Sherard Falkner Allison 1961
John Vernon Taylor 1974
Colin Clement Walter James 1985
Michael Scott-Joynt 1996

Chantries & Monuments
Winchester Cathedral is famous for its chantry chapels, where daily masses were said for the bishops buried within them. The two earliest are in the nave: that of William of Edington (Bishop 1345-66) was designed to stand below the Norman arcade; William of Wykeham's soaring monument was built at the same time as his reconstructed nave. The remaining four chantry chapels stand in the retrochoir. Cardinal Henry Beaufort (1404-47) chose a site next to the final shrine of St Swithun. On a corresponding position on the north side is the chantry chapel of William Waynflete (1447-86), who was provost of Eton (1442-7) and founder of Magdalen College, Oxford. The chapel of Richard Fox (1501-28) was built during his lifetime, on the south side of the feretory platform behind the high altar. The aged, blind bishop is said to have spent much time here in prayer and meditation. His chapel is a marvellous example of the stone-carver's art. The small statues are modern; the original figures of saints were destroyed at the Reformation. The Bishop's 'cadaver' effigy facing the south aisle reminds the passer-by of the transient nature of life. On the north side of the feretory platform, Bishop Gardiner's Chantry Chapel is an amazing hybrid of English late Gothic and Continental Renaissance style deriving ultimately from Fontainebleau. Stephen Gardiner (1531-55) was the last important Roman Catholic bishop of Winchester, during the reign of Mary Tudor (Queen Mary I). He officiated at her marriage to Philip of Spain, which took place in Winchester Cathedral. Other, smaller memorials tell their own fascinating story. In the recently refurbished 'Fishermen's Chapel' in the south transept is the grave of Izaak Walton. Outside the Lady Chapel the statue of Joan of Arc seems to ignore the nearby effigy of Cardinal Beaufort. Sir George Gilbert Scott's imposing 19th-century monument to Bishop Wilberforce (son of the social reformer) stands in the south transept. Also of interest are the tomb of Jane Austen and the statuette commemorating the 'Winchester Diver'.
The monastery later became known as St Swithun’s Priory. Only a few parts of the domestic buildings of St Swithuns Priory remain. The Chapter House entrance (above). The 13th Century Porch to the Priors House and the Priors Hall were incorporated into the present day Deanery, which was largely rebuilt in the 17th Century.

Deanery Where you can buy cheap books all summer

The main entrance to the Close is the 15th Century Prior’s Gate. This has a plain four-centred arch and the original traceried doors. The parapet is castellated, and there is a coat of arms over the arch. Cheyney Court, also 15th Century, was once the Bishops Court House. This is probably the most photographed domestic building in Winchester. The ground floor is constructed of stone with an oversailing three gabled timber frame and plaster infill above. The Close wall forms part of the back of the house. The 15th Century Porter's Lodge is similar to Cheyney Court and forms a 2-storey projecting gabled part of the Cheyney Court block. The Wisteria, which can be seen between the Lodge and the Priory Gate, recently covered most of the Gate and the Lodge and made a great show in the summer. The Pilgrims Hall (c.1308) is all that remains of a longer Medieval building, once the priory guest house. It has a hammer beam roof, reputedly the earliest known example. The ends of the beams are decorated with various carved heads. It has an inserted floor and modern windows and entrance. The roof is half-hipped with clay tiles. The building is open to the public.

No. 9 'Church House' is a 17 th Century 3-storey, three-gabled stone building with an old tile roof. There is an 8-light mullioned and transomed window in each gable. The gothic porch was added circa 1840. Internally it has a Georgian staircase. The building is used as Diocesan offices. All that remains of the late 11th Century Chapter House, demolished c. 1850, is a series of Gothic arches between Dean Garniers Garden and the South Transept.

The grass marks the site of the Chapter House.

15th century Cathedral Gate into Cathedral Close, Deans Garnier's Garden, Deanery, shop and Cathedral.

15th century Cathedral Gate going out to City East Gate through which you can visit Winchester college, Wolversey Palace, Water Meadows, Jane Austen House.

Outside the City Toll gate's here is a placque that says that the church that is built across the gate housed a man and his family plus their pigs.

Entrance to the Deans Garden

The Dean Garnier Garden is a new addition to the Cathedral Close and lies on the site of the dormitory of the Benedictine Monastery which was established for over 500 years, until the dissolution.The garden may be found between the site of the Chapter House and the Deanery and is accessed through a fine doorway and up a short flight of steps. The garden, designed by Sally Hocking, features three ‘rooms’. The first of these is the Dorter Garden with it’s recumbent Quince tree set in a lawn, with a small border planting. A three arched metal Arbour separates the Dorter Garden from the Presbytery Lawn and draws the eye to the old Deanery Bakehouse which is thereby incorporated into, but not part of, the Garden. Roses ‘Celine Forestier’ climb the Arbour and will, in time, shade the low stone benches underneath. To the left of the Bake House a little dog lies curled up beneath a fine stone bench seat.

Looking towards the steps and entrance of the Deans Garden

Arches of flowers in the Deans Garden

Plenty of seaing in the Deans Garden with different aspects to admire

Winchester: Capital City of Alfred

Map of England showing Wessex and Winchester within it

Archaically known as Winton, Winchester is a historic cathedral city and the ancient capital of Wessex and the Kingdom of England. It developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum.
Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in England, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe.
Winchester railway station is served by trains running from London Waterloo, Weymouth, Portsmouth, Southampton and the North.

County of Wessex

Early history
Settlement in the area dates back to pre-Roman times, with an Iron Age enclosure or valley fort, Oram's Arbour, on the western side of the present-day city. After the Roman conquest of Britain the civitas, then named Venta Belgarum or "Market of the Belgae", was of considerable importance.
The city may have been the Caergwinntguic or Caergwintwg (literally meaning "White Fortress") as recorded by Nennius after the Roman occupation. This name was corrupted into Wintanceastre following the Anglo-Saxon conquest of the area in 519.

Winchester with the Cathedral dominationg the sky line

Development- Venta Belgarum
The settlement was established around AD 70, partially on the site of a previous Iron Age valley fort, now known as Oram's Arbour, which had been abandoned for some years. It became the civitas capital of the local Belgae tribe. Its name means 'Market of the Belgae'. The River Itchen was diverted and a street grid laid out. A defensive bank and ditch was dug around the town in the 2nd century and a hundred years later a stone wall was added. The interior was the home to many fine Roman town houses or Domus, as well as public buildings and Roman temples

Fighting dog export centre
The Roman conquest of Britain made Britannia a Roman province. At that time, in Britain there were giant, wide-mouthed dogs, which the Romans called Pugnaces Britanniae, that surpassed their Molossus dogs. A Procurator Cynegii, was stationed in Venta Belgarum and responsible for selecting these dogs, which were exported to ancient Rome for contests in the amphitheatre and for integration into the military of ancient Rome as war dogs.

The forum-basilica appears to have included a temple to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva along with an accompanying Jupiter Column. Elsewhere, there was a Romano-British style temple dedicated to the Celtic horse goddess, Epona. There was a large Romano-British cemetery to the north of the town, at Lankhills, and another to the east.

From the mid-4th century, new development at Venta halted. Houses fell into disrepair and the drainage system collapsed. The population concentrated itself in the higher and drier areas of the town. The defences were however strengthened and the cemeteries remained in use, notably with burials of males wearing so-called military-style mercenary belts. Occupation seems to have ceased in the 5th century, but David Nash Ford suggests the town's name may have become Caer Gwinntguic, as recorded by Nennius. The Saxons later called it Wintanceastre.

Major towns of Roman Britain
Londinium (capital of Britannia Superior) - now London

Eboracum (capital of Britannia Inferior) - now York

Camulodunum (first 'capital' of Roman Britain) - now Colchester

Bannaventa* (Northamptonshire)

Caesaromagus - now Chelmsford •

Calleva Atrebatum* (Hampshire) •

Corinium Dobunnorum - now Cirencester •

Deva Victrix - now Chester •

Durovernum Cantiacorum - now Canterbury •

Durnovaria - now Dorchester •

Glevum - now Gloucester •

Isca Augusta - now Caerleon •

Isca Dumnoniorum - now Exeter •

Isurium Brigantum - now Aldborough •

Lactodurum - now Towcester •

Lindum Colonia - now Lincoln •

Moridunum - now Carmarthen •

Noviomagus Reginorum - now Chichester •

Petuaria - now Brough-on-Humber •

Ratae Corieltauvorum - now Leicester •

Venta Belgarum - now Winchester •

Venta Icenorum* (Norfolk) •

Venta Silurum* (Monmouthshire) •

Verulamium - now St Albans •

Viroconium Cornoviorum* (Shropshire)

Anglo-Saxon times
The city has historic importance as it replaced Dorchester-on-Thames as the de facto capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex in about 686 after King Caedwalla of Wessex defeated King Atwald of Wight. Although it was not the only town to have been the capital, it was established by King Egbert as the main city in his kingdom in 827. Saint Swithun was Bishop of Winchester in the mid 9th century. The Saxon street plan laid out by Alfred the Great is still evident today: a cross shaped street system which conformed to the standard town planning system of the day - overlaying the pre-existing Roman street plan (incorporating the ecclesiastical quarter in the south-east; the judicial quarter in the south-west; the tradesmen in the north-east). The town was part of a series of fortifications along the south coast. Built by Alfred to protect the Kingdom, they were known as 'burhs'. The medieval city wall, built on the old Roman walls, are visible in places. Only one section of the original Roman walls remains. Four main gates were positioned in the north, south, east and west plus the additional Durngate and King's Gate. Winchester remained the capital of Wessex, and then England, until some time after the Norman Conquest when the capital was moved to London. The Domesday Book was compiled in the city early in the reign of William the Conqueror

Medieval and later times

Winchester High Street in the mid 19th century.

A serious fire in the city in 1141 accelerated its decline. However, William of Wykeham (1320-1404) played an important role in the city's restoration. As Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, and he founded Winchester College as well as New College, Oxford.

During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline. The curfew bell in the bell tower (near the clock in the picture), still sounds at 8.00pm each evening. The curfew was the time to extinguish all home fires until the morning.
The famous novelist Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 and is buried in the cathedral. The Romantic poet John Keats stayed in Winchester from mid August through to October 1819. It was in Winchester that Keats wrote "Isabella", "St. Agnes' Eve", "To Autumn" and "Lamia". Parts of "Hyperion" and the five-act poetic tragedy "Otho The Great" were also written in Winchester.
Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe. It is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Swithun and is the seat of the Bishop of Winchester and centre of the Diocese of Winchester. Since March 2006 an admission charge has been required for visitors to enter the cathedral

Pre-Norman cathedral
The Old Minster was the Anglo-Saxon cathedral for the diocese of Wessex and then Winchester from 660 to 1093. It stood on a site immediately north of and partially beneath its successor, Winchester Cathedral.It became part of a monastic settlement in 971.
The old legend that the Old Minster was built in the 2nd century for the non-existent King Lucius of Britain is erroneous. The stone minster was constructed in 648 for King Cenwalh of Wessex and Saint Birinus. It became the diocesan cathedral in 660. It was enlarged and redecorated over the years and Saint Swithun was buried outside it in 862. In 901, the New Minster was built next to it, so close in fact that it is said the singing of the monks inside each became hopelessly intermingled. Saint Æthelwold of Winchester followed by his successor, Saint Alphege, almost completely rebuilt the minster on a vast scale during their monastic reforms of the 970s. Saint Swithun's body was taken into an indoor shrine in what had become the largest church in Europe. However, after the Norman conquest of England, Bishop Walkelin built a replacement cathedral alongside and the Old Minster was demolished in 1093. Many of the Kings of Wessex and England, as well as holy saints, had been buried there, so their bodies were dug up and re-interred in the new building.
The Old Minster was excavated in the 1960s. It is now laid out in brickwork in the churchyard adjoining Winchester Cathedral. Saint Swithun's first grave is clearly marked. Finds from the site may be seen in the Winchester City Museum. The bones of the monarchs removed to the cathedral are now housed in the famous mortuary chests around the choir.

Notable events
Signing of the Regularis Concordia by King Edgar the Peaceable (973)

Coronation of Edward the Confessor (1043)

Marriage of Edward the Confessor and Edith (1045)

Coronation of Matilda of Flanders as queen consort (1068)

Winchester Cathedral: West Door

Construction of the cathedral began in 1079 under bishop Walkelin, and on April 8, 1093, in the presence of nearly all the bishops and abbots of England, the monks removed from Saxon cathedral church of the Old Minster to the new one, "with great rejoicing and glory" to mark its completion. The earliest part of the present building is the crypt, which dates from that time. William II of England and his older brother, Richard, Duke of Bernay are both buried in the cathedral. The squat, square crossing tower was begun in 1202 to replace an earlier version which collapsed, partly due to the unstable ground on which the cathedral is built. It has an indisputably Norman look to it. Work continued on the cathedral during the 14th century, in 1394 the remodelling of the Norman nave commenced to the designs of master mason William Wynford, this continued into the 15th and 16th centuries, notably with the building of the retroquire to accommodate the many pilgrims to the shrine of Saint Swithun. After King Henry VIII seized control of the Catholic Church in England, and declared himself head of the Church of England, the Benedictine foundation, the Priory of Saint Swithun, was dissolved (1539) and the cloister and chapter house were demolished, but the cathedral continued.
Restoration work was carried out by T.G. Jackson during the years 1905–1912, including the famous saving of the building from total collapse. Some waterlogged foundations on the south and east walls were reinforced by a diver, William Walker, packing the foundations with more than 25,000 bags of concrete, 115,000 concrete blocks and 900,000 bricks. He worked six hours a day from 1906 to 1912 in total darkness at depths up to 6 m, and is credited with saving the cathedral from total collapse. For his troubles he was awarded the MVO.

Important events which took place at Winchester Cathedral include:
Funeral of King Harthacanute (1042)

Coronation of Henry the Young King and his queen, Marguerite (1172)

Second coronation of Richard I of England (1194)
Marriage of King Henry IV of England and Joanna of Navarre (1403)

Marriage of Queen Mary I of England and King Philip II of Spain (1554)

Funeral and burial of Jane Austen (1817

Wolvesey Castle and Palace
Wolvesey Castle is a ruined castle in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It was erected by the Bishop of Winchester Henry of Blois between 1130 and 1140.
The castle was the scene for the Rout of Winchester in which the Empress Matilda assaulted the Bishop Henry in 1141, during a period known as The Anarchy. The besieged defenders of Wolvesey set fire to the city, destroying most of the old town of Winchester and holding off Empress Matilda's forces until King Stephen's wife, Queen Matilda, arrived with re-enforcements from London.
It was once a very important building, and was the location on July 25, 1554 of the wedding breakfast of Queen Mary and Philip II of Spain.
The castle was destroyed by Roundheads during the English Civil War in 1646. It is currently owned by English Heritage.

Winchester Castle
Winchester Castle, is a castle in England in the city of Winchester, in the county of Hampshire, built in 1067. Only the Great Hall exists now; it houses a museum of the history of Winchester.

The Great Hall
Between 1222–1235, Henry III added the Great Hall, built to a "double cube" design, measuring 110' by 55' by 55'. The Great Hall is built of flint with stone dressings; originally it had lower walls and a roof with dormer windows. In their place were added the tall two-light windows with early plate tracery. Extensions to the castle were made by Edward II. In 1873 the roof of the Great hall was renewed.
The "Winchester Round Table" in the Great Hall, dendrochronology dating has placed it at 1275.An imitation Arthurian Round Table hangs in the Great Hall. The table was originally constructed in the 13th century, and repainted in its present form for Henry VIII, around the edge of the table are the names of King Arthur's knights.
Behind the Great Hall is a re-creation of a medieval garden called Queen Eleanor's Garden.

The Castle in history
In 1302, Edward I and his second wife, Margaret of France, narrowly escaped death when the royal apartments of the castle were destroyed by fire.
Margaret of York, daughter of King Edward IV, was born here on 10 April 1472.
On November 17, 1603 Sir Walter Raleigh went on trial for treason for his supposed part in the Main Plot in the converted Great Hall.
The castle was used by the Royalist Cavaliers in the English Civil War, eventually falling to Parliamentarian Roundheads in 1646. Oliver Cromwell then ordered the castle's destruction.
In the 17th century, Charles II planned to build King's House adjoining the site, commissioning Christopher Wren to design a royal palace to rival the Palace of Versailles. The project was abandoned by James II.
Another notorious trial took place in the Great Hall, on 15 March 1953; the 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu Edward Montagu along with Michael Pitt-Rivers and Peter Wildeblood went on trial on charges of having committed specific acts of indecency

The Castle today
Since 1889 Winchester Castle has been the seat of Hampshire County Council whose offices neighbour the Great Hall. Nearby, the excavated remains of the round tower with Sally ports and Guardrobes in the medieval city wall can also be seen.
The buildings were supplanted by the King's House, now incorporated into the Peninsula Barracks where there are several military museums. Winchester is also home to the Army Training Regiment Winchester, otherwise known as Sir John Moore Barracks, where Army recruits undergo their phase one training.

Winchester College
Winchester College is a famous boys' independent school, set in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England, once the ancient capital. Officially known as Collegium Sanctae Mariae prope Wintoniam (or Collegium Beatae Mariae Wintoniensis prope Winton), or St Mary's College near Winchester, the College is commonly referred to as "Win: Coll:" or just "Winchester". The school has lived and worked in its present site and buildings for over six hundred years and thus claims the longest unbroken history of any school in England, though The King's School, Canterbury and St Peter's School, York claim far earlier dates for their original foundation . Winchester is the oldest of the original nine English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. "Winchester has arguably the finest tradition of scholarship of any school in the country", says the Good Schools Guide describing the school as "uniquely civilised" and providing an "academically, comradely and architecturally privileged boyhood most Wykehamists treasure throughout their lives

Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor to both Edward III and Richard II, and the first seventy poor scholars entered the school in 1394. It was founded in conjunction with New College, Oxford, for which it was designed to act as a feeder: the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. This double foundation was the model for Eton College and King's College, Cambridge some 50 years later (a sod of earth from Winchester and a number of scholars were sent to Eton for its foundation), and for Westminster School, Christ Church, Oxford and Trinity College, Cambridge in Tudor times.
In addition to the seventy scholars and 16 "Quiristers" (choristers), the statutes provided for ten "noble Commoners". These Commoners ("Commoners in Collegio") were paying guests of the Head Master or Second Master in his official apartments in College. Other paying pupils ("Commoners extra Collegium"), either guests of one of the Masters in his private house or living in lodgings in town, grew in numbers till the late 18th century, when they were all required to live in "Old Commoners" and town boarding was banned. In the 19th century this was replaced by "New Commoners", and the numbers fluctuated between 70 and 130: the new building was compared unfavourably to a workhouse, and as it was built over an underground stream epidemics of typhus and malaria were common.
In the late 1850s four boarding houses were planned (but only three built, namely A, B and C), to be headed by masters: the plan, since dropped, was to increase the number of scholars to 100 so that there would be "College", "Commoners" and "Houses" consisting of 100 pupils each. In the 1860s "New Commoners" was closed and converted to classrooms, and its members were divided among four further boarding houses (D, E, G and H, collectively known as "Commoner Block"). At the same time two more houses (F and I) were acquired and added to the "Houses" category; a tenth (K) was acquired in 1905 and allotted to "Commoners". (The distinction between "Commoners" and "Houses" is now of purely sporting significance, and "a Commoner" means any pupil who is not a scholar.) There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th century buildings, and the total number of pupils is almost 700. From the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers.
In 2005 the school was one of fifty of the country's leading private schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents. Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared.
The headmaster is currently Dr Ralph Townsend, formerly of Sydney Grammar School and Oundle School.

Boarding houses
Houses Official Name Informal Name House Letter

Chernocke House Furley's A

Moberly's Toye's B

Du Boulay's Cook's C

Fearon's Kenny's (occasionally "Kennaez") D

Morshead's Freddie's E

Hawkins' Chawker's F

Sergeant's Phil's (Naize) G

Bramston's Trant's H

Turner's Hopper's I

Kingsgate House Beloe's K

The Scholars live in the original buildings, known as College; individual scholars are known as "Collegemen". College is not usually referred to as a house, except for the purposes of categorisation: hence the terms 'housemaster of College' and 'College house' are not generally used. The housemaster of College is now known as the 'Master in College', though these duties formerly belonged to the Second Master. Within the school, 'College' refers only to the body of scholars (and their buildings); 'Winchester College' and 'the college' refer to the school as a whole. Every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen when applying to Winchester. It is here that he eats and sleeps. Each house is presided over by a housemaster (who takes on the role in addition to teaching duties) and a number of house tutors. Houses compete in school competitions, and in particular in sporting competitions. Each house has an official name, used mainly as a postal address, and an informal name, usually based on the name or nickname of an early housemaster. Each house also has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation. A member of a house is described by the informal name of the house with "-ite" suffixed, as "a Cookite", "a Toyeite" and so on. The houses have been ordered by their year of founding. College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll:'` is sometimes used, especially on written work. It also has a letter assigned to it, X, but it is considered bad form to use this except as a laundry mark.
Each house also had a set of house colours, which adorned the ribbon worn around boys' "strats" (straw hats). The wearing of strats was abolished for Commoners in around 1984 - Collegemen had ceased to wear them years earlier.
Admission to College is on academic merit, as measured in the Election examination, regardless of financial means, though the original statutes specified that the foundation existed for poor scholars and required entrants to take an oath that their net income did not exceed a figure chosen as the average income for the time. Scholars enjoyed a remission of fees, amounting for much of the twentieth century to two-thirds of the total. This remission has since been progressively reduced, and is due to be abolished altogether. The intention is to maintain the academic and institutional distinction between Scholars and Commoners, while using the money saved in bursaries for those pupils least able to pay, Scholars and Commoners alike.

Situated on the south side of Chamber Court, the Chapel is part of the original College buildings and retains its original wooden fan-vaulted ceiling. Built to easily accommodate just over 100 people, it is now too small for the current school population of around 660. Additional seating installed in 1908 allows the Chapel to seat just over 300 people with the remainder (generally first and second years) worshipping in the nearby St. Michael's Church (known as Michla). Occasional services are also held in Fromond's Chantry, which is in the middle of the Cloisters.
The Chapel's most striking feature is its stained glass. The East window depicts the stem of Jesse. Down the Chapel's north and south sides is a collection of saints. Little of the original medieval glass, designed by Thomas Glazier, survives. A firm of glaziers in Shrewsbury was tasked with cleaning the glass in the 1820s. At that time there was no known process for cleaning the badly deteriorated glass and so it was copied, while most of the original glass was scattered or destroyed. Some pieces have been recovered. The south west corner holds the largest piece, bought and donated by Kenneth Clark. Five other figures bequeathed by Otto von Kienbusch and two more donated by Coleorton Church, Leicestershire were placed in Fromond's Chantry in 1978.
Until Victorian times the chapel was divided into a Chapel and Ante-Chapel, and had decorative panelling. This panelling was recovered by the school in the 1960s and used in the building of New Hall, the school concert hall, the design of which was specifically planned so as to house it.
The Chapel Choir sings regular services in the Chapel, as well as other venues. This consists of sixteen Quiristers (who attend the Pilgrims School) and a similar number of senior boys and a few dons (masters). There is also a choir to sing the services in St. Michael's Church (known as Michla), between which and the Chapel the School is divided for Sunday worship .
Academic structureUntil the 1860s the predominant subject of instruction was classics, and there was one main schoolroom used as both the classroom and the place of preparation, under extremely noisy conditions: there were adjacent rooms used for French and mathematics. Under the headmastership of George Ridding proper classrooms were built, and pupils had the option of joining "Parallel Div" for the study of history and modern languages. Later still a "Sen: Science Div" was added. Science teaching at Winchester had a high reputation: one of the early science masters duplicated the experiments of Hertz about radio waves, the equipment for which is still preserved at Science School.
For much of the twentieth century the senior forms were divided among three "ladders": the A ladder for classics, the B ladder for history and modern languages and the C ladder for mathematics and science. There was also a vertical division, in descending order, into Sixth Book (equivalent to the sixth form at other schools), Senior Part, Middle Part and Junior Part: depending on ability, new boys were placed in either Junior or Middle Part.
The school now offers a wide range of subjects, and no longer has a system of ladders. In 2008 it abandoned A-level as its matriculation credential and adopted the Cambridge Pre-U on the grounds that this will strengthen the quality of the school's intellectual life. In addition, all boys throughout the school are required to attend daily Division lessons on history, literature and politics that do not lead to external examinations. The purpose is to ensure a broad education which does not focus solely on examinations.
Winchester has its own entrance examination, and does not use Common Entrance. Those wishing to enter a Commoner house make their arrangements with the relevant housemaster some time before sitting the exam. Those applying to College do not take the normal entrance examination but instead sit a separate, harder, exam called "Election": successful candidates may obtain, according to their performance, a scholarship, an exhibition or a Headmaster's nomination.

A notion is a manner or tradition peculiar to Winchester College. The word notion is also used to refer to unique and peculiar words used (with diminishing frequency) in the school. An example is "toytime", meaning prep or homework. It can also refer to more recent slang, some of which features the altering of vowels in certain words for sarcastic emphasis.
The Notions Test was until recently an important tradition in most houses, in which juniors were required to answer questions about notions. Although now banned under various pretexts including the European human rights conventions, the test was usually administered to new boys during their first term at the school by more senior boys, and aimed to test and demonstrate their familiarity with the vocabulary, history and traditions of the school. College Notions was more elaborate and continued for a few years longer than the Commoner tests. It took the form of an end-of-term celebration and marked the point at which new Collegemen formally became known as Jun: Men.

War Cloister
Situated to the west of College Meads, this cloister serves as a memorial to the Wykehamist dead of the two world wars. It was designed by Sir Herbert Baker and dedicated in 1924 and again in 1948.
A bronze bust of Air Chief Marshal Lord Dowding sits on the west side of the cloister.
War Cloister occupies a strategic position in Kingsgate Street (accessed via "South Africa Gate", which commemorates the Wykehamist dead of the 1899–1902 Boer War), so that all Commoners go through it on their way to and from class.
Another older war memorial in the school is the entry chamber to Chapel, known as "Crimea" after the war.

Prefectorial system College
Traditionally there were always 18 prefects in College, though since the mid-twentieth century there have been fewer, 10 to 14 being typical. Of these, five (later increased to six) hold salaried offices. Historically, these were as follows, in descending order of seniority:
Aulae Praefectus (Aul: Prae:, Prefect of Hall), the head boy of the school. ("Hall", in this connection, is not restricted to the dining hall but means the College as a whole, as in the phrases "Trinity Hall" and "hall of residence".) He acts jointly with the Sen: Co: Prae: (see below). Bibliothecae Praefectus (Bib: Prae:, Prefect of Library), until recently in charge of Moberly Library (the school academic library); this function has now been taken over by a full-time librarian. Scholae Praefectus (Schol: Prae:, Prefect of School), in charge of bookings of the old School building and miscellaneous other functions. two Capellae Praefecti (Cap: Prae:, Prefects of Chapel): functions obvious. Formerly they took turns to officiate; until recently practice has been to differentiate between the "Sen: Cap: Prae:" and the "Jun: Cap: Prae:". Nowadays there is only one Cap: Prae: The post of Jun: Cap: Prae: (junior chapel prefect) has recently been abolished and has been replaced by Ollae Praefectus (Oll: Prae:), which literally translates as "prefect of tub". (This is the revival of an ancient office, which was suppressed in the nineteenth century when the office of Bib: Prae: was created. The duties were to do with catering, especially the disposal of uneaten food from College lunch, which was collected in a special wooden vat and given to the poor. This vat or tub is still on display in College Hall.)
Each Officer, in addition to his specialized duties, has charge of a College Chamber (day-room). Thus when IVth Chamber was reopened, increasing the number of chambers to six, a sixth Officer was created, the Coll: Lib: Prae:, in charge of Upper Coll: Lib: (the fiction library available to Collegemen). The post had previously existed informally, but the holder used not to rank as an Officer.
Formerly, there were one or two (originally five) further prefects "in full power", invariably, though improperly, known as Co: Praes. Officers and Co: Praes had authority throughout the school; the remaining prefects had authority only in College. Nowadays, while there are still six officers, they have little to do with the running of the school and are mainly responsible for their respective chambers, and there are no other College Co: Praes. In practice, only the Prefect of Hall has significant duties outside College.
The present practice is for all fifth-years in College to be prefects. Each officer nominates a prefect from those members of his year who are not officers to act as his deputy within his chamber; any prefects left over are sometimes known as "Jemimas" (reason unknown). The seven senior inferiors (non-prefects) in College are known as Custodes Candelarum (tollykeepers), but this is a purely nominal dignity. The next senior person in a chamber after the prefects and tollykeepers was once known as the in loco, and kept the accounts for Chamber Tea.

Commoner Houses
Outside College there is a Sen: Co: Prae: (Senior Commoner Prefect), who acts as joint Head Boy with the Prefect of Hall. There are then a number of Co: Praes (Commensalibus Praefecti, Commoner Prefects) with authority over all Commoners: traditionally, no Commoner has authority over any Collegeman. Nowadays, there is generally only one Co: Prae: per house, who acts as the senior house prefect. In addition, each house has a number of House Prefects, with authority only in that house. The Co: Praes (heads of houses) meet weekly together with the Prefect of Hall and Head Master to discuss the running of the school.

There has been no system of fagging for some decades. College prefects used to engage junior boys as "valets": by the 1960s this had become a voluntary arrangement in which the valets were paid for their services, and the system disappeared altogether in the early 1970s. Similarly in the 1970s some Commoner houses retained traditions, for example in Toye's, of "trap-cads", who would perform services for senior boys for money and other benefits. Junior Collegemen still take it in turns to perform services ("sweat") for the whole Chamber such as bringing down bread and milk. The College Officers each engage (and pay) a second-year as a "writer" (Latin: "Scriptor"), to perform a variety of duties, more or less related to the position held by their Officer - for example, the Cap: Prae:'s writer lights the candles in Chapel before services, while the Schol: Prae:'s writer collects and delivers the morning's newspapers to each chamber. Sweats were officially abolished in 2005. However they remain commonplace in most houses and are organised for first and second year boys to do by their respective Housemasters

The school song is "Dulce Domum", which is sung on the approach of and at the break-up of the school for the Summer holidays. It is also sung at Abingdon School and Stamford School under similar circumstances, and was popular among 19th century English public schoolboys. For example, it is mentioned in the early chapters of Tom Brown's Schooldays. Paradoxically, although the subject of the song is the joy of breaking from the school grind and returning home for the holidays, it is often taken as symbolising the idyllic, nostalgic view of English public school life in the 19th century. It should not be confused with another song of the same name, but with completely different tune and lyrics, written by Robert S. Ambrose.
According to legend, it was composed by a pupil in the 17th or 18th century, who was confined for misconduct during the Whitsun holidays. (On one account, he was tied to a pillar.) It is said that he carved the words on the bark of a tree, which was thereafter called "Domum Tree", and cast himself into Logie (the river running through the school grounds). There is still a "Domum Cottage" in that area.
The song is sung at the end of the summer term, and on other occasions when a school song is normally sung. There is also a "Domum Dinner" held around the same time, for those former scholars of Winchester who were also scholars of New College, and for various distinguished guests. Until the reforms of the nineteenth century, there were three successive Election Dinners held during Election Week, culminating in a Domum Ball. Originally these festivities occurred around Whitsun, as suggested by the seasonal references in the song, but when Election Week was moved to the end of the summer term in June or July the Domum celebrations were moved with it.
It is rather remarkable that the author apparently treated 'domum' as a neuter noun. One could argue that domum is the accusative, meaning "homeward", and that dulce is used adverbially.
Here is the chorus (in Latin, with English translation):
Domum, domum, dulce domum!Domum, domum, dulce domum;Dulce, dulce dulce domum!Dulce domum resonemus.
Home, home, joyous home! (or: Homeward, homeward, joyously homeward!)Home, home, joyous home!Joyous, joyous, joyous home!Hurrah for joyous home!

Winchester quotations
Manners makyth man- William of Wykeham Motto of Winchester College and New College, Oxford

Broad of Church and broad of mind,
Broad before and broad behind,
A keen ecclesiologist,
A rather dirty Wykehamist.- John Betjeman "The Wykehamist"

Leader in London's preservation lists
And least Wykehamical of Wykehamists{:}Clan chief of Paddington's distinguished set,Pray go on living to a hundred yet!- John Betjeman "For Patrick" (about Patrick Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross)

You can always tell a Wykehamist, but you can never tell him much- Anon.

These Wykehamists have the kind of mind that likes to relax by composing Alcaics on the moving parts of their toy trains.- Evelyn Waugh

Would you doubt the word of a Wykehamist?- Sir Edward Grey

O, Eternal God, the Life and the Resurrection of all them that believe in Thee, always to be praised as well for the Dead as for those that be Alive, we give Thee most hearty Thanks for our Founder, William of Wykeham; and all other our Benefactors, by whose Benefits we are here brought up to Godliness and the studies of good Learning; beseeching Thee that we, well using all these Thy Blessings to the Praise and Honour of Thy Holy Name, may at length be brought to the Immortal Glory of the Resurrection, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.- "Thanksgiving for the Founder" as at present used on commemoration days

Further reading
Adams, Wykehamica: Oxford, London and Winchester 1878 Cook, A. K., About Winchester College: London 1917 Custance, R., (ed.), Winchester College: Sixth Centenary Essays: Oxford, 1982 ISBN 019920103X
Dilke, Christopher, Dr Moberly's Mint-Mark: A Study of Winchester College: London 1965 Fearon, W. A., The Passing of Old Winchester: Winchester 1924, repr. 1936
Firth, J. D'E., Winchester College: Winchester 1961
Kirby, T. F., Annals of Winchester College: London 1892
Leach, Arthur F., A History of Winchester College: London 1899
Mansfield, Robert, School Life at Winchester College: 1866
Sabben-Clare, James, Winchester College: Paul Cave Publications, 1981, ISBN 0861460235 Stevens, Charles, Winchester Notions: The English Dialect of Winchester College: London, 1998 Tuckwell, The Ancient Ways: Winchester Fifty Years Ago: 1893

Hospital of St Cross
Set in open meadow land to the south of Winchester, the Hospital of St Cross was founded in the 1130´s by Bishop Henry of Blois for `thirteen poor men, feeble and so reduced in strength that they can scarcely or not at all support themselves without other aid´. The hospital was placed under the care of the Knights of St John, and the thirteen Brothers of this foundation still wear black gowns and a badge depicting the Jerusalem Cross.
The Chapel was started in the 1160´s and retains much of its late Norman purity, despite being somewhat altered in the 14th and early 15th centuries. The number of Brethren was enlarged in the 15th century by Cardinal Beaufort, who provided for a second order of almsmen, the `Noble Order of Poverty´. Brethren of this order wear magenta gowns. The octagonal chimneys mark the Brethren´s lodgings, built about 1445 by Cardinal Beaufort. On the East side of the Chapel may be seen a graveyard wherein are interred the remains of various Masters and Brethren. Apart from providing for the Brethren, Almsgiving is still practised in the form of the `Wayfarers Dole´. A piece of white bread and a cup of good beer or Ale may be obtained by knocking at the door of the Porters Lodge, and requesting the Dole. The plaque on the wall says it all...`Christ´s Hospital , Which was founded in the Year of our Lord 1607 by Peter Symonds, a Native of Winchester and afterwards a Mercer in the City of London. The Endowments of this House are applied to the maintenance of Six Old Men, One Matron, and Four Boys, and also to the Assistance of One Scholar in each of the Two English Universities. The name of such a Benefactor is remembered with gratitude by Posterity´.
The charity was amalgamated with several others by the Charity Commission and is now administered by the St Johns Winchester Charity.
The almshouses and vast Norman chapel of Hospital of St Cross were founded just outside the city centre by Henry de Blois in the 1130s. Since at least the 14th century, and still available today, a 'wayfarer's dole' of ale and bread has been handed out there. It was supposedly instigated to aid pilgrims on their route through to Canterbury.

Other buildings
Other important historic buildings include the Guildhall dating from 1871, the Royal Hampshire County Hospital designed by William Butterfield and one of the city's several water mills driven by the various channels of the River Itchen that run through the city centre. Winchester City Mill, has recently been restored, and is again milling corn by water power. The mill is owned by the National Trust.
Although Winchester City survived World War II intact, about thirty percent of the Old Town was demolished to make way for buildings more suited to modern office day requirements (in particular for Hampshire County Council and Winchester City Council). Since the late 1980s the city has seen a gradual replacement of these post war brutalist structures for contemporary developments more sympathetic to the medieval urban fabric of the Old Town.
Education There are three state secondary schools: Kings' School Winchester, The Westgate School, and The Henry Beaufort School, all of which have excellent reputations. The sixth form Peter Symonds College is the main college that serves Winchester; it is rated amongst the top and the largest sixth form colleges in the UK.
Among privately owned preparatory schools, there are The Pilgrims' School Winchester, Twyford School, Prince's Mead etc. Winchester College, which accepts students from ages 13 to 18, is one of the best-known public schools in Britain and many of its pupils leave for well-respected universities. St Swithun's is a public school for girls which frequently appears on the league tables for GCSE and A-level results.
The University of Winchester (formerly King Alfred's College) is Winchester's university, beginning life as a teacher training college. It is located on a purpose built campus near the city centre. The Winchester School of Art is part of the University of Southampton.
SportWinchester has an association football league and two recognised clubs, Winchester City F.C., the 2004 FA Vase winners who were founded in 1884 and has the motto "Many in Men, One in Spirit", currently play in the Southern League, Division 1 S&E after a highly successful spell in the Wessex League and Winchester Castle F.C., who have played in the Hampshire League since 1971. Barnsley midfielder Brian Howard was born in Winchester.
Winchester women also have successful sports teams with Winchester City Women FC currently playing in the Hampshire County League Division 1 and recently went through a league campaign unbeaten. The club caters for players of all ability and ages.[1]
Winchester also has a rugby union team named Winchester RFC and a thriving athletics club called Winchester and District AC.
Winchester has a thriving successful Hockey Club <>, with ten men's and three ladies' teams catering to all ages and abilities.
The city has a growing roller hockey team which trains at River Park Leisure Centre.
Lawn bowls is played at several greens (the oldest being Hyde Abbey dating from 1812) during the summer months and at Riverside Indoor Bowling Club during the winter.
Winchester College invented, and lent its name to Winchester College Football, played exclusively at the College and in some small African/South American communities.

Winchester abroad
The city of Winchester is twinned with Laon in France and the Winchester district is twinned with Gießen in Germany.
The city of Winchester gave its name to a suburb of Paris, France, called Le Kremlin-Bicêtre (23,724 inhabitants), owing to a manor built there by John of Pontoise, Bishop of Winchester, at the end of the 13th century.
The city is also the sister city of Winchester, Virginia. The Mayor of Winchester (UK) has a standing invitation to be a part of the Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival in Winchester (VA) each year in the Spring.

Media and culture
Winchester is home to Winchester Live, a live music festival set up in 2008 as a special event organised by Placid Piranha Promotions aimed at promoting the area of Winchester and Hampshire to the music industry and local music scene. Happening across three venues and boasting 11 gigs in 7 nights, it will be an opportunity to showcase Winchester as a thriving music town with big names in rock ‘n’ roll performing with a wealth of talent that Hampshire has to offer.
Since 1974 Winchester has hosted the annual Hat Fair, a celebration of street theatre that includes performances, workshops, and gatherings at several venues around the city.
Winchester hosts one of the UK's largest and most successful farmers' markets, with close to - or over - 100 stalls, and is certified by FARMA. The farmers' market takes place on the second and last Sunday monthly in the town centre.
On Channel 4 UK's Television Programme "The Best And Worst Places To Live In The UK" 2006, which was broadcast on Channel 4 UK on 26 October 2006, it was branded as the Best Place In The UK To Live In: 2006.
In the 2007 edition of the same programme, Winchester had dropped to second best place to live, behind Edinburgh.
Winchester in fiction12th century Winchester is one of the locations described in Ken Follett's Pillars of the Earth.
Winchester is the main location of Samuel Youd's post-apocalyptic science fiction series, Sword of the Spirits. The books were published under the pen name John Christopher.
In the movie Merlin, King Uther's first conquest of Britain begins with Winchester, which Merlin foresaw would fall.
A fictionalised Winchester appears as Wintoncester in Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles and is in part the model for Barchester in the Barsetshire novels of Anthony Trollope, who attended Winchester College; The Warden is said to be based on a scandal at the Hospital of St Cross.
In Philip Pullman's novel The Subtle Knife (part of the His Dark Materials trilogy) the main male protagonist, Will Parry, comes from Winchester. However, little of the book is set there.
In the Japanese manga Death Note, The Wammy's House, an orphanage founded by Quillsh Wammy, where the detective L's successors are raised, is located in Winchester.
A fictitious estate near Winchester is the scene of a crime in the Sherlock Holmes adventure, The Problem of Thor Bridge, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, while some of the action in his The Adventure of the Copper Beeches takes place in the city.
A scene in Henry Esmond by William Makepeace Thackeray is set in the choir of Winchester cathedral.
Winchester Cathedral is featured in James Herbert's horror novel The Fog.